# GPA vs SGPA vs CGPA vs OGPA : What is the difference?

When you first enter into the higher education mainstream, you start hearing about GPA, CGPA, SGPA and similar terms. It’s difficult sometimes making sense of all that when previously you have been dealing with Marks, Grades and Percentages.

You may know that these are the grading systems to evaluate your performance, but you need to understand what is the difference between these terms and how they are calculated.

Let’s have a brief introduction about each one with examples and how they are different.

**1. What is GPA (Grade Point Average)?**

**GPA** stands for Grade Point Average, and it is a common method of evaluation in the Semester system. It is basically the average of all the grade points secured in a semester.

**How to Calculate GPA:**

When total grade points secured by a student are divided by the total credit hours in all the subjects, it gives us the average of all the grade points. Therefore, we call it GPA.

**Formula:**

GPA = (Sum of Grade Points Earned) / (No. Of Subjects)

**Example:**

Let’s say you have the following five courses in a semester. You secure the Grades and the grade points as shown in the table:

Course | Grade | Grade Point |

Mathematics | A | 4.0 |

Physics | B+ | 3.3 |

Chemistry | B | 3.0 |

English | A- | 3.7 |

Computer Science | A | 4.0 |

**GPA Calculation:**

You need to divide the sum of all the grade points with the number of subjects to take an average.

GPA = (4.0 + 3.3 + 3.0 + 3.7 + 4.0) / 5

= 18 / 5

= **3.6**

GPA is the basic metric that can be used for short-term assessments (like SGPA for a semester) or long-term evaluations (like CGPA for an entire degree). You can easily convert GPA to CGPA using our tool.

**2. What is SGPA (Semester Grade Point Average)?**

**SGPA** stands for Semester Grade Point Average. It is similar to GPA but is calculated for a single semester. SGPA gives a summary of a student’s performance in a particular semester.

**How to Calculate SGPA:**

To calculate SGPA, each course’s grade points are added. The sum is then divided by the total number of credit hours attempted in the semester to get an average.

**Formula:**

SGPA = (Sum of Grade Points Earned in a Semester) / (Total Credit Hours in that Semester)

**Example:**

Suppose in a first semester, you took four courses, and your grades were as follows:

Course | Grade | Grade Point | Credit Hours |

Mathematics | A | 4.0 | 4 |

Physics | B+ | 3.3 | 3 |

Chemistry | B | 3.0 | 4 |

English | A- | 3.7 | 3 |

**SGPA Calculation:**

SGPA = (4.0*4 + 3.3*3 + 3.0*4 + 3.7*3) / (4 + 3 + 4 + 3)

= (16 + 9.9 + 12 + 11.1) / 14

= 49 / 14

= **3.5**

SGPA is used to assess a student’s academic performance over a specific semester. It helps both students and educators get an idea of the overall performance of students in a a semester.

**3. What is OGPA (Overall Grade Point Average)?**

**OGPA** stands for Overall Grade Point Average and is commonly used in agricultural universities and some technical institutions in India. OGPA is an average of all the SGPAs obtained throughout the entire degree program. It is just like CGPA, but the calculation method is a bit different.

**How to Calculate OGPA:**

OGPA is calculated in the same way as CGPA, by averaging the grade points over the entire duration of a course or program.

**Formula:** OGPA = (Sum of SGPAs Across Semesters) / (Total Number of Semesters)

**Example:** Suppose a student has completed 8 semesters with the following SGPAs:

Semester | SGPA |

1st | 3.5 |

2nd | 3.7 |

3rd | 3.8 |

4th | 3.6 |

5th | 3.9 |

6th | 3.8 |

7th | 3.7 |

8th | 3.9 |

**OGPA Calculation:**

OGPA = (3.5 + 3.7 + 3.8 + 3.6 + 3.9 + 3.8 + 3.7 + 3.9) / 8

= 29.9 / 8

= **3.74**

OGPA is commonly used in specialized fields like agriculture to reflect the overall performance of a student. It is helpful when GPA is calculated with Relative grading method. It’s similar in function to CGPA, but may be used in specific contexts.

**4. What is CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average)?**

**CGPA** stands for Cumulative Grade Point Average, and it is the most widely used grading system in Indian universities. It’s a weighted average of the grade points obtained in all the courses over all the semesters.

**How to Calculate CGPA:**

To calculate CGPA, the total grade points accumulated over all semesters are divided by the total number of credit hours completed across those semesters.

**Formula:**

CGPA = (Total Grade Points Earned in All Semesters) / (Total Credit Hours in All Semesters)

**Example:**

Suppose a student has completed four semesters, with the following grade points and credit hours:

Semester | Total Grade Points | Credit Hours |

1st | 45 | 12 |

2nd | 50 | 14 |

3rd | 48 | 13 |

4th | 52 | 15 |

**CGPA Calculation:**

CGPA = (45 + 50 + 48 + 52) / (12 + 14 + 13 + 15)

= 195 / 54

= **3.61**

CGPA provides to evaluate the whole performance in a simple and single metric. It is often used in determining eligibility for honors, scholarships, and job opportunities.

**Key Differences Between GPA, SGPA, OGPA, and CGPA**

Metric | Full Form | Scope | Usage |

GPA | Grade Point Average | Measures academic performance over a specific period (e.g., semester or year). | Common in semester-based evaluations. |

SGPA | Semester Grade Point Average | Measures performance specifically for one semester. | Snapshot of a single semester’s performance. |

OGPA | Overall Grade Point Average | Average of all SGPAs over the entire course duration. | Common in agricultural and technical institutions. |

CGPA | Cumulative Grade Point Average | Cumulative average of all grade points over the entire program. | Widely used in most Indian universities. |

**Conclusion**

When going for higher education system, it is important to understand the grading systems in Indian institutions. It helps you to have a clear idea of how you are being evaluated so that you can set your goals accordingly. For Indian students, it is important to understand the difference between GPA, CGPA, SGPA and OGPA. By learning these concepts, students can better interpret their academic standing without getting confused. Also, you may need to convert the GPAs into percentage for jobs or admissions. For CGPA to Percentage Conversion, you can use our accurate tool.